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It is also home to the football club SV Darmstadt The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then as Darmundestat.
Its origins are unknown. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the 'Darmbach' a small stream formerly running through the city.
Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in , at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen.
When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in , the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse , and was seat of the ruling landgraves — and thereafter to of the grand dukes of Hesse.
The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10, to 72, inhabitants. In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil , the German variant of Art Nouveau.
Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. Also during this period, in the chemist Anton Kollisch , working for the pharmaceutical company Merck , first synthesised the chemical MDMA ecstasy in Darmstadt.
Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district Kreis.
Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early , shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany.
The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility". Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach , both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime.
Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July , and 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end. The old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, which was subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden in February To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed.
Darmstadt was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects.
During this fire attack an estimated 11, to 12, of the inhabitants burned to death, and 66, to 70, were left homeless.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, and has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since It is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport , with important activities in spacecraft operations the European Space Operations Centre , European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites , chemistry, pharmacy, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunications substantial Deutsche Telekom presence and mechatronics.
In , its region also scored Rank 3 amongst 97 German regions in the WirtschaftsWoche test ranking Germany's high-tech regions.
The roots of Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences goes back to  along with Technische Universität Darmstadt the first electrical engineering chair and inventions fame , when both these Universities were an integrated entities, a need for a separate industry based research educational institution was felt in the early s, finally University of Applied sciences emerged as a separate industry based research educational institution in and is the largest University of Applied Sciences in Hesse German: Hessen with about 11, students.
The TU Darmstadt is one of the important technical institutes in Germany and is well known for its research and teaching in the Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering disciplines.
Together with other tertiary institutions, the TU is responsible for the large student population of the city, which stood at 33, in Darmstadt has nine official 'Stadtteile' boroughs.
Darmstadt is highly connected to all means of transportation, including the Autobahn Network , the Intercity-Express Network and a major international airport.
Darmstadt is connected to a number of major roads, including two Autobahnen Bundesautobahn 5 and Bundesautobahn The rural areas east of the city in the Odenwald are accessed by several secondary roads.
The extensive public transport system of Darmstadt is integrated in the RMV the transportation authority of the Frankfurt Metropolitan Area.
The backbone of public transport in Darmstadt is its modern tram system with 9 lines and a local bus service serving all parts of the city.
Darmstadt is furthermore connected to the Frankfurt S-Bahn system and being served by regional bus lines. Furthermore, regional rail lines R64, R65, R66 connect six secondary railway stations within the city.
Darmstadt is connected to the Frankfurt rapid transit network by S-Bahn line S3. Besides that, a number of regional trains connect secondary railway stations within Darmstadt and the region with Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof main station , offering a net of inner city and regional train links.
By its main railway station " Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof ", which is located in the western part of the central city, Darmstadt is connected to the rest of Germany and Europe by the Intercity-Express network and other long-distance trains.
The airport ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second-busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe.
The airport also serves as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus.
Darmstadt is being served by several national and European bus links which connect Darmstadt with other German and European cities.
Darmstadt was the capital of an independent country the Grand Duchy of Hesse until and the capital of the German state of Hesse until It is due to its past as a capital city that it has many architectural testimonies of this period.
Many of its major architectural landmarks were created by Georg Moller who was appointed the court master builder of the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
Due to the fact that the last ruling Grand Duke of Hesse, Ernst Ludwig was a grandson of Queen Victoria and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia , the architecture of Darmstadt has been influenced by British and Russian imperial architecture with many examples still existing, such as the Luisenplatz with its grand-ducal column, the old Hessian State Theatre at Karolinenplatz and the Russian Chapel by Leon Benois.
The Russian church, St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, is named in honor of the patron saint of Tsar Nicholas' mother and was built of Russian stone on Russian soil brought to Darmstadt by train.
It was used by the Russian imperial family and court during regular visits to the Tsarina's brother and family in Darmstadt.
The rulers of Hesse also owned a hunting lodge in Kranichstein which is a nowadays used as a five star hotel. The most famous castle in the Darmstadt region is Frankenstein Castle due to claims that the real castle may have had an influence on Mary Shelley's decision to choose the name Frankenstein for her monster-creating scientist.
This castle dates back to the 13th century, but it was acquired by the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt in Darmstadt has a rich tradition in modern architecture.
After several "Meisterbauten" Masterful Architectonic Creations were built that set standards for modern architecture. These buildings still exist and are used for various public and private purposes.
In the late s the Waldspirale 'Forest Spiral' was built, a residential complex by Austrian Friedensreich Hundertwasser. As an almost surreal building, it is internationally famous for its almost absolute rejection of rectangular forms, down to every window having a different shape, the style being a trademark of Hundertwasser's work.
Hundertwasser died before the Waldspirale was finished. Darmstadt was a centre of the Art Nouveau movement. Surviving examples of the Jugendstil period include the Rosenhöhe, a landscaped English-style rose garden from the 19th century, recently renovated and replanted,  the Mathildenhöhe ,  with the Hochzeitsturm 'Wedding tower', also commonly known as the 'Five-Finger-Tower' by Joseph Maria Olbrich , the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt and large exhibition halls as well as many private villas built by Jugendstil architects who had settled in Darmstadt.
German Art Nouveau is commonly known by its German name, Jugendstil. The name is taken from the artistic journal, Die Jugend, which was published in Munich and which espoused the new artistic movement.
It was founded in by Georg Hirth Hirth remained editor until his death in , and the magazine continued to be published until The magazine was instrumental in promoting the style in Germany.
As a result, its name was adopted as the most common German-language term for the style: Although, during the early 20th century, the word was applied to only two-dimensional examples of the graphic arts, especially the forms of organic typography and graphic design found in and influenced by German magazines like Jugend, Pan, and Simplicissimus, it is now applied to more general manifestations of Art Nouveau visual arts in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic states, and Nordic countries.
The two main centres for Jugendstil art in Germany were Munich and Darmstadt. The Luisenplatz , the central square of the city, forms the centre of the city and is the main public transport hub.
While the column still stands, the square is today surrounded by mostly modern buildings. Other important squares are the Marktplatz see image near the old city hall and the Sabaisplatz at the Mathildenhöhe.
The city has a high density of parks. Among the most important parks are the English style Herrngarten in central Darmstadt. In former times it was part of the Royal Gardens used exclusively by the dukes of Darmstadt.
Today it is a public park, heavily used in every season of the year. Other important parks are the French style parks Prinz-Georgs-Garten and Orangerie , the modern style Bürgerpark "People's Park" in northern Darmstadt and the mystical Park Rosenhöhe , "Rose Heights" which also serves as the cemetery for the dukes, with two impressive mausoleum buildings in its remote parts.
The Botanischer Garten in eastern Darmstadt is a botanical garden maintained by the Darmstadt University of Technology with a fine collection of rare plants and trees.
The Protestant Stadtkirche church ,  built in , is in the pedestrian zone of the downtown city center, next to the historic Hotel Bockshaut. Hotel Bockshaut was built in for a church presbytery.
The most important Catholic Church is St. Ludwig in central Darmstadt. The Russian Chapel in Darmstadt is a Russian orthodox church which is still in use.
Although Russian orthodox churches also exist in other cities outside Russia, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt was the only official Russian church used by the Tsar outside the Russian Empire.
It is said that the chapel was built on Russian soil that was brought to Darmstadt exclusively for the purpose of building the Tsar's private chapel on it.
It is named after its founder August Euler , a pioneer aviator. Typical for a university of technology , ten out of its 13 academic departments Fachbereiche are in engineering , natural sciences , and mathematics , while three departments are in the social sciences and the humanities.
The departments with number of the department are: In addition, there are five fields of study Studienbereiche , which offer interdisciplinary degree courses in which students take lectures in multiple departments: Altogether, TU Darmstadt offers about courses of studies.
Research is being carried in the departments as well as in six Profile Areas. The university has attracted a considerable number of national and international research institutions to the Wissenschaftsstadt Darmstadt Darmstadt - City of Science.
TU Darmstadt collaborates with these research institutes on a broad basis. The university offers international English-language Master's programs  and a broad range of double degree programs.
TU Darmstadt pursues multiple paths for knowledge and technology transfer. TU Darmstadt offers various recreational sports courses and operates three sports halls, a sports stadium including various fields, a swimming pool, and a fitness studio.
The AStA is the students' government and engages in university politics and provides social and economic counseling for students. In addition to the regular university curriculum, students can attend various non-credit courses held by students and coordinated by the AStA.
Complementing the General Students' Committee, which represents all students enrolled at TU Darmstadt, the students of each department Fachschaft are represented by an elected students' council Fachschaftsrat.
Students of the Fachschaft participate in a number of committees of their department, such as the department's council Fachbereichsrat , which consists of professors, students, academic staff and administrative staff.
Since the s, the fictitious student Fritz Filter passed numerous examinations at the Department of Architecture before graduating with a Diplom degree in His thesis featured the design of the department building.
Fritz Filter turned in multiple further architecture theses since then. A survey determined that in summer semester students in Darmstadt paid an arithmetic mean of euros a month for rent, heat and utilities.
With the German average being euros at the time, this made Darmstadt the sixth most expensive city for students in Germany.
There are 2, beds in 9 halls of residence offered by the state-run student affairs organization Studierendenwerk Darmstadt for students of TU Darmstadt and Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences.
Within Germany, the TU Darmstadt in the overall assessment and its faculties in individual grades regularly occupy top positions in rankings.
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